Telephones in Israel are rather simple to use. Most people have cellphones and readily give those numbers out. Landlines are all 7 digit numbers plus a 2 digit area code long. Area codes all begin with "0" . 02 is Jerusalem and environs, 03 is Tel Aviv and environs, 09 is central Israel, 04 is Haifa area, Gelilee and Golan, 08 is South,(including Eilat). You do not need to use the area code when calling from within that code. Writing phone numbers doesn't seem to be consistent. Some people write 02-1234567, others 02-123 4567 and others 02-1234 567. Almost all phones in Israel have call waiting. It is no charge. However, the second caller hears a different ring than the first. The first hears a normal ring, while the second hears two shorter sounds, a pause and then it repeats Etiquette is, unless you call is an emergency to hang up when you are second. The person you are calling will usually hit *42 ( also no extra charge) and call you back.

Cellphones have a 7 digit number preceded by a 3 digit prefix. It is always necessary to use the full 10 digit number. Like Europe there is no charge for incoming calls.
Pay phones are getting harder to find as the cellphone is taking over. Pay phones need prepaid cards and those are available from vendors in the street, vending machines near pay phone banks, the post office, some lottery kiosks and many hotel desks. Be warned, the most expensive method of calling anyplace is usually from your hotel room. Good luck and happy talking.

Alternatively, if you would like to use your personal cell phone (needs to be unlocked and GSM capable) or have another unlocked device,
you can buy a local SIM card in many shops and gas stations for about $10.
Calls and internet traffic are very cheap, and you only pay for the relatevly part of the month you had the service (If you disconnect in the middle of the month you get a refund).
Some plans include unlimited international calls to many countries.